From Biologist to Sexologist, Alfred Kinsey was born on this day in 1894. He wrote a popular textbook; An Introduction to Biology that was used for many years. The Kinsey Institute began in the attic of his home where he not only interviewed and observed people having sex, he often participated and encouraged co-workers to do the same. He came from a family of devout Christians to become the father of sexology. He was also an entomologist.
1946 Vancouver Island Earthquake, struck Vancouver Island in British Columbia.
2001 An 8.4 Mw earthquake struck southern Peru with a maximum Mercalli Intensity of VIII, Severe. A destructive tsunami followed killing at least 74 people and injuring 2,687.
Earthquakes are measured today using the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale. This scale measures the effects of an earthquake, rather than the moment magnitude. Mw would be the measure of the moment magnitude. The Mercalli scale is a revised version of the Rossi-Forel scale and has gone through a number of changes since first developed in 1884. Although there are twelve degrees defining the Modified Mercalli scale, we usually only see the most severe which are X, XI, and XII. The scale uses Roman Numerals and starts with I which is not felt except by a few. A good way to remember it is remember V, that is a moderate earthquake and is felt by nearly everyone around it. VI – VII are strong. VIII is severe and IX is violent, but the ones you usually see reported are X-XII, these are Extreme and are the ones with large amounts of destruction.
A primary reinforce is a reinforce related to biological drives such as food or sex. Although sex is a powerful drive, we generally don’t use that as a primary reinforce when training dogs. We do use food in the form of treats as a reward, and that is a powerful primary reinforcer.
6/22/1864 Hermann Minkowski, mathematician, developed geometry of numbers, he was one of Einstein’s teachers, he died in 1909 at age 44.
6/22/1887 Julian Huxley, British biologist, proponent of natural selection, and evolutionary synthesis, he died in 1975 at age 88.
6/22/1934 James Bjorken, American theoretical physicist, he discovered light-cone scaling, a phenomenon in the deep inelastic scattering of light on strongly interacting particles known as hadrons.
1783 A poisonous cloud caused by the eruption of the Laki vocano in Iceland reached Le Havre in France.
1919 Fergus Falls Tornado, killing 57 people.
2002 An earthquake measuring 6.5 Mw stuck a region of northwestern Iran killing at least 261 people and injuring 1300 others eventually causing widespread public anger due to the slow official response.
2003 Aurora, Nebraska received the largest hailstone ever recorded, which measured approximately 7 inches (17.8 centimeters) in diameter and weighed approximately 1.5 pounds (680 grams). Another hailstone of that diameter measurement was recovered in Potter Nebraska on July 6, 1928.
Hail has a diameter of 5 millimeters which is a little less than ¼ inch. Hailstones measure between 5 mm and 15 cm. 15 cm is close to 6 inches in diameter. That is a big ball of ice if you get hit with one. The reason why some hailstones are bigger than others depends on the updrafts and how strong the storm is. Strong updrafts keep the hailstones aloft longer and they continue to build ice on their surface, and grow. The National Weather Service and Skywarn advises storm watchers to report hail over ½ inch. In the United States, hail is usually between 1 inch and 1.75 inches or golf-ball sized. The NWS threshold for damaging hail is 1 inch or 2.5 cm.
Usually we feed our dogs at a certain time of day, let them out to relieve themselves at a certain time and take them out to play or for a walk at a certain time. Dogs get used to this as a routine and don’t do well when the routine is changed. No matter how well the dog has been trained, break one of these routines and its behavior changes. Dog behavior can change depending on other conditions too. We should always keep this in mind when the dog is not performing up to our standards. Think about what else might be affecting its behavior that day. Above all, always remember, they are still dogs.
Today is the birthday of Clara Immerwahr, born in 1870. Clara received a Ph.D. in chemistry, but due to female stereotypes of the time, she was able to do little of her own research. She married Fritz Haber and contributed much to his research with little of her own recognition. She committed suicide in 1915 due to his role in supervising chemical war gas weaponry.
Others born on this day were:
6/21/1805 Charles Jackson, chemist, polymath, brother in law of Ralph Waldo Emerson, made a geological exploration of Nova Scotia, he died in 1880 at age 75 after suffering a mental illness.
6/21/1863 Maximillian Wolf, astronomer, pioneer in the field of astrophotography, he died in 1932 at the age of 69.
6/21/1880 Arnold Gesell, psychologist, he died in 1961 at age 81.
6/21/1916 Herbert Friedman, astronomer, pioneer in the application of sounding rockets to solar physics, he died in 2000 at age 84.