I bet a lot of people have heard of Pavlov’s Dog. Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who studied animal digestion. He noticed that dog’s would salivate when presented with food, so Pavlov started ringing a bell right when he brought out the food. The dogs would start to salivate. Then he started ringing the bell before the food was brought out and the dogs still salivated. This is called a conditioned reflex and the process is called Pavlovian conditioning or classical conditioning. These are reflex acts as opposed to voluntary acts. Think of this when you are training your dog; are you training for a reflex action or a voluntary action?