- Today is the birthday of Lother Meyer, born in 1830, he discovered a periodic table independently of Mendeleev. He published his table a few months after Mendeleev. Meyer had sent Mendeleev a copy of his table earlier, then Mendeleev published an almost identical version. Meyer also was the first to say that the carbon atoms in benzene were in a ring.
- John Flamsteed, born in 1646 was an astronomer who catalogued over 3000 stars.
- Johann Gahn born in 1745 was a chemist and metallurgist who discovered magnesium in 1774.
- Milton Humason, born in 1891, discovered the comet C/1961 R1
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1904 St. Louis Tornado, 3 people killed
1955 In the Northeast United States, severe flooding caused by Hurricane Diane claims 200 lives.
2005 A series of strong storms lashes Southern Ontario spawning several tornadoes as well as creating extreme flash flooding within the city of Toronto and surrounding communities. In Toronto it was also dubbed the “Toronto Supercell”
There are four classifications of thunderstorms: supercell, squall line, multi-cell and single cell. The supercell is characterized by the presence of a mesocyclone which is a deep rotating updraft. The supercell is a rotating thunderstorm and has the potential to be the most severe, even though they are the least common.
Reinforcement can be continuous or intermittent. The reinforcement should start our as continuous when a new skill is taught, and then weaned off to an intermittent reinforcement, when it is only used some of the time.
Today is the birthday of Alfred Wallace, born in 1823, like Darwin he sailed off on a ship for scientific exploration. In 1848 he traveled to the Amazon and wrote a book on his travels, the ship burned and many of his records were lost. He collected over 125 000 specimens on a trip in 1854, he drew a line between continents of Asia and Australia called the Wallace Line where organisms were different on each side. He shared publication with Darwin but he was sick with ague and didn’t accept that man could come from animals.
Today is also the birthday of Walther Bothe, born in 1891, he was a student of Max Planck and studied cosmic rays using coincidence counting.
Johannes Fabricius, born in 1587, discovered sunspots in 1610 independently of Galileo.
Escape conditioning occurs when the dog hears a sound or some warning that an unpleasant event is about to occur. This type of conditioning sometimes occurs without our intervention. For example, sometimes when the stove is on, it sets off a heat alarm in the kitchen. The dog will leave the kitchen when it sees you turning on the stove, because it wants to escape from the shrill warning of the heat alarm. This type of conditioning can be put to use in training if an undesirable action is preceded by a sound to let the dog know a correction is coming. Escape conditioning is like a warning.
Today is the birthday of Walter Noddack, born in 1893, along with Ida Tacke and Otto Berg they discovered element 75, rhenium. They also reported the discovery of element 43, technetium, which they called masurium. The discovery had been dismissed until recently, it is still being debated. Walter Noddack went on to marry Ida Tacke.
1668 A magnitude 8.0 earthquake causes 8,000 deaths in Anatolia, Ottoman Empire.
1915 A category 4 hurricane hits Galveston, Texas with wind speeds of 135 mph.
1959 1959 Hebgen Lake Earthquake, Quake Lake is formed when a 7.5 magnitude earthquake occurred near Hebgen Lake in Montana.
1969 Hurricane Camille hits the Gulf Coast killing 256 people and causing $1.4 billion in damages.
1999 A 7.4 magnitude earthquake struck Izmit, Turkey killing more than 17,000 people.