Natural Disasters, August 16

1868    1868 Ecuador Earthquakes, 70,000 people killed.

1888    Valley Field Quebec tornado, 9 dead

1906    An estimated 8.2 Mw earthquake hits Valparaiso, Chile killing 3,886 people.

1989    A solar flare creates a geomagnetic storm that affects micro chips and leads to a halt in trading on Toronto’s stock market.

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Dog Tip of The Day, August 16

Negative reinforcement is not always the same as punishment. Negative reinforcement is used to get a dog to do something more often, punishment is used to get a dog to quit doing something.  We don’t use punishment in dog training, but it is unavoidable completely. Sometimes a dog does something and we just have to react. Hopefully that doesn’t include hitting or kicking the dog. The dog will lose confidence and respect for you if you do that. It is better for a dog to respect you than to fear you. Dogs want to do right because of their love for you and their packing instinct. That should be enough.

Negative reinforcement is when a stimulus is removed. Positive reinforcement is when a stimulus is used. An example of a negative reinforcement is when a dog will react to a stimulus to prevent it. Let’s say you are playing with the dog, but it isn’t playing fair. Maybe you are throwing a ball and it won’t let you pick up the ball. If you quit and sit down. That is a negative stimulus. The dog wants to play and you quit, because he wasn’t playing fair.

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Science Birthdays, August 15

Today is the birthday of  Louis Victor Pierre Raymond DeBroglie, or Prince Louis DeBroglie, born in 1892, his great great grandfather was guillotined during the French Revolution, Educated at the Sorbonne in history but turned to science after being a radio operator in WW I and searched for a symmetric inverse of the Compton effect where particles had wave properties, got his Noble prize for the duality theory.  He died in 1987 at the age of 94.

Gerty Cori was born on this day in 1896. Along with her husband Carl and Bernardo Houssay, she discovery of the mechanism by which glycogen, a derivative of glucose, is broken down in muscle tissue into lactic acid and then resynthesized in the body and stored as source of energy, this is known as the Cori Cycle. She died in 1957 at age 61.

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Natural Disasters, August 15

1787    Four-State Tornado Swarm

1868    1868 Ecuador Earthquakes

1952    A flash flood drenches the town of Lynmouth, England killing 34 people.

2007    An 8.0 magnitude earthquake off the Pacific coast devastates Ica and various regions of Peru killing 514 people.

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Dog Tip of The Day, August 15

Here is a quick summary about the three main reinforcers and the best tip for each:

Praise, three minutes of exaggerated praise using a high pitched voice.

Toy, this should be a favorite toy dedicated to work only.

Treat, this should be something soft, that the dog loves and can eat fast and get back to work.

(These reinforcers are the ones we use for training working dogs, dogs who are finding people, objects etc., they are strong reinforcers and work best when kept simple, without deviation, like mentioned above).

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Science Birthdays, August 14

Today is the birthday of Hans Oersted, born in 1777, he discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields. The Oersted (Oe), the cgs unit of magnetic H-field strength is named after him. He died in 1851 at age 73

Today is the birthday of Richard Ernst, born in 1933 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1991 for his contributions towards the development of Fourier Transform nuclear resonance spectroscopy.

Arthur Dempster, born in 1886 was best known for his work in mass spectroscopy and his discovery of the uranium isotope U235.

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Science Birthdays, August 13

8/13/1625        Erasmus Bartholin       physician remembered especially for his discovery (1669) of the double refraction of a light ray by Iceland spar, he died in 1698 at age 73.

8/13/1819        Sir George Stokes       physicist made important contributions to fluid dynamics (including the Navier–Stokes equations), he died in 1903 at age 83.

8/13/1814        Anders Angstrom       physicist, born in 1814, one of the founders of the science of Spectrocopy.  His combination of the spectroscope and photography for the study of the solar system resulted in proving that the sun’s atmosphere contains hydrogen, among other elements.  The Angstrom Unit, 10­­-10 is named in his honor.  It shows how feeble our thinking is that we no longer use this unit of measurement, it is just the right unit for describing the size of atoms. He died in 1874 at age 59.

8/13/1844        Johann Miescher         chemist, He isolated various phosphate-rich chemicals, which he called nuclein (now nucleic acids), from the nuclei of white blood cells in 1869, he died in 1895 at age 51.

8/13/1872        Richard Willstatter      chemist German organic chemist whose study of the structure of plant pigments, chlorophyll included, won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Willstätter invented paper chromatography independently of Mikhail Tsvet. He died in 1942 at age 69

8/13/1918        Frederick Sanger         chemist, two-time Nobel laureate in chemistry, the only person to have been so, Nobel prize in chemistry “for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”. In 1980, Walter Gilbert and Sanger shared half of the chemistry prize “for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”.


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